[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 13

[PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 13. set. To quantify differences in viraemia between regions, a simpler model was TSU-68 (Orantinib, SU6668) fitted comparing the 2017C18 period with 2015C16 and estimated the change in prevalence in each region, whilst controlling for age, sex and other variables included in the main model. Periods were defined in 2\year blocks rather than individual years to increase power and provide a single estimate of prevalence change over time for each region. A similar approach was used to compare prevalence in 2015C16 and 2017C18 across other subgroups, including age group, gender, injected in last year (yes/no), ever in prison (yes/no) and ever homeless (yes/no). Differences in trends were assessed by the significance of the interaction between the period and subgroup variables. All analyses were conducted on the multiple imputed data sets using Stata 13 (College Station, TX: StataCorp LP). Summary statistics and proportions were calculated by taking the average across imputed data sets. Statistical tests of differences in proportions and trends over time were conducted using logistic regression, with results combined across imputed data sets to appropriately account for within\ and between\imputation variability according to Rubin’s rules. 2.5. Treatment access Participants who reported ever testing positive for HCV were asked if they had ever received treatment for their HCV infection; this response was combined with infection status from DBS testing. A cleared infection result (anti\HCV positive, HCV TSU-68 (Orantinib, SU6668) RNA negative) among people who self\reported ever receiving treatment was assumed to be reflective of successful access to treatment. Descriptive trends in the proportion of those with non\viraemic (cleared) infection who reported ever receiving treatment were TSU-68 (Orantinib, SU6668) presented for 2011C2018. This was not included in analytical modelling due to treatment being on the causal pathway to infection status. 3.?RESULTS 3.1. Characteristics of the study population There were a total of 20,637 responses from PWID in England who completed a questionnaire and provided a DBS sample between 2011C2018; after excluding those with missing demographics ( em n /em ?=?585), those HIV\positive ( em n /em ?=?229) or not tested for anti\HCV ( RB1 em n /em ?=?835), a total of 19,039 responses were included from 138 unique study sites (Figure S1). Among all survey participants included, 73.2% were male and 63.7% were aged 35 or over (Table?1). The North West had the largest number of responses (15.5%) followed by London (14.2%). The majority reported having ever been tested for HCV (84.1%) and having first injected more than 3?years preceding the survey (90.7%). Most respondents had injected in the last year (71.3%). There were high rates of history of imprisonment and homelessness (69.5% and 76.2%, respectively). TABLE 1 Demographic and behavioural characteristics of the study population, including number anti\HCV positive and HCV RNA positive thead valign=”bottom” th align=”left” rowspan=”2″ valign=”bottom” colspan=”1″ Variable /th th align=”left” colspan=”2″ style=”border-bottom:solid 1px #000000″ valign=”bottom” rowspan=”1″ Total sample characteristics ( em N /em ?=?19,039) /th th align=”left” colspan=”2″ style=”border-bottom:solid 1px #000000″ valign=”bottom” rowspan=”1″ Number anti\HCV positive ( em N /em ?=?9,650) /th th align=”left” TSU-68 (Orantinib, SU6668) colspan=”2″ style=”border-bottom:solid 1px #000000″ valign=”bottom” rowspan=”1″ Chronic HCV infection (among those anti\HCV positive) ( em N /em ?=?4,761) /th th align=”left” valign=”bottom” rowspan=”1″ colspan=”1″ em n /em /th th align=”left” valign=”bottom” rowspan=”1″ colspan=”1″ % (col) /th th align=”left” valign=”bottom” rowspan=”1″ colspan=”1″ em n /em /th th align=”left” valign=”bottom” rowspan=”1″ colspan=”1″ % (row) /th th align=”left” valign=”bottom” rowspan=”1″ colspan=”1″ em n /em a /th th align=”left” valign=”bottom” rowspan=”1″ colspan=”1″ % (row) b /th /thead Demographic Year20112,359(12.4)1,054(44.7)527(57.7)20122,807(14.7)1,366(48.7)694(57.5)20132,687(14.1)1,338(49.8)670(55.6)20142,587(13.6)1,296(50.1)663(56.8)20152,240(11.8)1,159(51.7)562(55.5)20162,183(11.5)1,161(53.2)595(55.8)20172,006(10.5)1,077(53.7)484(49.4)20182,170(11.4)1,199(55.3)566(50.4)GenderFemale5,106(26.8)2,556(50.1)1,042(44.8)Male13,933(73.2)7,094(50.9)3,719(58.6)Age (years) 356,907(36.3)2,657(38.5)1,339(54.8)3512,132(63.7)6,993(57.6)3,422(55.0)RegionEast of England1,365(7.2)585(42.9)251(52.6)London2,704(14.2)1,595(59.0)773(56.7)South East2,200(11.6)1,252(56.9)648(55.3)South West2,086(11.0)982(47.1)500(54.2)West Midlands2,026(10.6)749(37.0)397(56.0)North West2,946(15.5)1,903(64.6)921(55.1)Yorkshire & Humber2,108(11.1)1,104(52.4)601(59.7)East Midlands1,960(10.3)895(45.7)433(52.0)North East1,644(8.6)585(35.6)237(46.4)BirthplaceNon\UK1,219(6.5)716(58.7)386(59.0)UK17,446(93.5)8,742(50.1)4,286(54.6) Behavioural Ever had an HCV testNo2,912(15.9)798(27.4)400(57.1)Yes15,412(84.1)8,519(55.3)4,198(54.8)Recent initiate (in past 3?years)No16,729(90.7)8,983(53.7)4,441(55.0)Yes1,718(9.3)424(24.7)207(54.0)Injected drugs in the past yearNo5,229(28.7)2,303(44.0)1,027(50.6)Yes12,986(71.3)6,918(53.3)3,529(56.4)Injected crack in the past month c No8,091(64.0)3,740(46.2)1,818(54.4)Yes4,561(36.1)3,012(66.0)1,627(59.1)Ever TSU-68 (Orantinib, SU6668) been in prisonNo5,655(30.5)2,020(35.7)892(49.2)Yes12,870(69.5)7,368(57.3)3,743(56.5)Ever been homelessNo4,417(23.8)1,751(39.6)790(49.8)Yes14,162(76.2)7,674(54.2)3,868(56.1)Ever had transactional sex d No15,489(87.2)7,674(49.5)3,823(55.6)Yes2,281(12.8)1,264(55.4)572(50.1) Clinical Hepatitis B (ever infected)No16,380(86.2)7,474(45.6)3,762(55.3)Yes2,633(13.9)2,160(82.0)991(53.7)Had hepatitis B vaccinationNo/not sure4,903(26.6)2,078(42.4)1,086(58.5)Yes13,563(73.5)7,528(53.5)3,527(53.9) Open in a separate window NoteMissing data in total sample: Birthplace (401), ever had an HCV test (756), recent initiate (610), injected in past year (862), injected crack in past month (334), ever been in prison (552), ever been homeless (495), ever had transactional sex (1,330), HBV infection (26) and HBV vaccination (573). a The number with chronic illness excludes samples missing RNA status. b The denominator for chronic illness percentages includes samples missing RNA that experienced data imputed with multiple\imputation by chain equations (MICE). c.