Then, cytotoxicity experiments were performed to investigate the potential neurotoxicity of Au nanoparticles. TRPV1 in hippocampal slices. Fig. S8. C-fos expression in the cortex after Au nanoparticles and 1064 nm laser irradiation (1.0 W/cm2). Fig. S9. Whole-cell current-clamp recording of action potentials in brain slice in presence of Au@PDA-PEG-Ab before (a&b) and after (c&d) 1064 nm laser irradiation (1.0 W/cm2). Fig. S10. Whole-cell current-clamp recording of action potentials in brain slice before (a) and after (b) 1064 nm laser irradiation (1.0 W/cm2). 40580_2022_304_MOESM1_ESM.docx (31M) GUID:?2B2602D5-4F72-4831-AAEA-67105611745E Data Availability StatementAll data are presented in the submitted manuscript. Abstract Infrared neural stimulation with the assistance of photothermal transducers holds great promise as a mini-invasive neural modulation modality. Optical nanoparticles with the absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) window have emerged as excellent photothermal transducers due to their good biocompatibility, surface modifiability, and tunable optical absorption. However, poor activation efficiency and limited stimulation depth are main predicaments encountered in the neural stimulation mediated by these nanoparticles. In this study, we prepared a targeted polydopamine (PDA)-coated gold (Au) nanoparticles with specific binding to thermo-sensitive ion channel as nanotransducers for second near-infrared (NIR-II) photo-stimulation of neurons in rats. The targeted Au nanoparticles were constructed via conjugation of anti-TRPV1 antibody with PEGylated PDA-coated Au nanoparticles and thus exhibited potent photothermal performance property in the second NIR (NIR-II) window and converted NIR-II Imatinib Mesylate light to heat to rapidly activate Ca2+ influx of neurons in vitro. Furthermore, wireless photothermal stimulation of neurons in living rat successfully evoke excitation in neurons in the targeted brain region as deep as 5?mm beneath cortex. This study thus demonstrates a remote-controlled strategy for neuromodulation using photothermal nanotransducers. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s40580-022-00304-y. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: Gold nanoparticles, Polydopamine, Near-infrared, Neural stimulation, Photothermal transducers Introduction Imatinib Mesylate Dysfunction of neural activity is closely related with neurological and psychiatric disorders such as epilepsy , Parkinsons disease (PD) , and depression . Regulation of neural activity not only serves as cornerstone for exploring the function and interactions of neural network in basic neuroscience, but also emerges as an evolving treatment modality for various neurological disease in neurology . Small molecules that target ion channels (e.g., Na+, K+, and Ca2+) and neurotransmitters can be used to pharmacologically modulate the neuronal activity . Some of them have successfully entered into clinic from laboratory bench. Nevertheless, the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles of these drugs Rabbit Polyclonal to Tau (phospho-Thr534/217) are difficult to control, leading to unavoidable off-target side effects after systematic administration. In contrast, modulation of neural activity by physical stimulus (e.g., electric current, magnetic field, and ultrasound) offers the unique advantages of strong accessibility and controllability. For instance, with the assistance of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), alternating magnetic field could excite action potentials in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressed neurons in the targeted brain regions and therefore evoke specific motor behaviors in awake mice [6C8]. In another study, magnetic activation of TRPV4-overexpressed neurons can also be achieved by anti-His antibody modified MNPs . Ultrasound has also been applied to modulate neural activity directly or indirectly through piezoelectric materials [10C13]. However, there are still major shortcomings in these techniques including the inflammation and gliosis due to the implantation of stimulation electrodes  and low spatiotemporal resolution of transcranial stimulation [13, 15]. Thus, development of alternative approaches toward mini-invasive yet precise modulation of neural activity remains great challenge. Light is another physical stimulus modality that has been widely used for bioregulation due to its biosafety and remote spatiotemporal controllability [16C18]. Compared with the Imatinib Mesylate above techniques, the optical stimulation holds the distinguished advantage of high spatiotemporal and neurochemical resolution. Optogenetics, which exploit microbial opsins such as channelrhodopsin (ChR), halorhodopsin (NpHR), and archaerhodopsin (Arch), provide a powerful tool for precise control of neurons and even specific behaviors in living rodents. However, opsins and their derivatives only respond to the visible light ranging from.
Then, cytotoxicity experiments were performed to investigate the potential neurotoxicity of Au nanoparticles
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