Nevertheless, compound 41 was also stable in the allosteric site of VPAC1 during the 30 ns (and 80 ns) MD simulation

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Nevertheless, compound 41 was also stable in the allosteric site of VPAC1 during the 30 ns (and 80 ns) MD simulation. the context of additional class B GPCRs. Until the crystal structure of VPAC1 will become released, the offered homology model of VPAC1 can serve as a scaffold for drug discovery studies and is available from the author upon request. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: G protein-coupled receptors, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1, VPAC1, VIPR1, VIP, PACAP, homology modeling, molecular dynamics, GPCRM, gut hormone receptors, GPCR activation, antagonist, agonist 1. Intro Class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the second (after class A), studied in detail, branch of a GPCR phylogenetic tree [1]. A peptide-driven activation of class B GPCRs prospects to either increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) effector molecules concentrations or translocation of arrestin to the plasma membrane. With high concentrations of class B agonists also Gq-induced intracellular calcium response is possible [2]. Interestingly, class B endogenous peptides have proved to have little selectivity for numerous GPCR receptors, e.g., secretin binds not only to SCTR but also to vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 (VPAC1) and VPAC2 [3], but with much lower potency (1000-collapse and 10000-collapse, respectively). Other main examples of such low selectivity in the secretin-like GPCR subfamily were observed for Lactose growth hormoneCreleasing hormone (GHRH) [4] and corticotropin-releasing element (CRF) [5,6]. The mostly Mouse monoclonal to ApoE studied class B GPCRs thus far are: secretin receptor SCTR, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 receptor (PAC1R), calcitonin receptor (CTR), corticotropin-releasing element receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor also known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR), glucagon receptor (GCGR), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R), growth-hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR), parathyroid hormone receptors 1 and 2 (PTHR1 and PTHR2), vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors 1 and 2 (VPAC1 and VPAC2). Additional class B GPCRs include: amylin receptors (AMY1C3), calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRP) and adrenomedullin receptors (AM1C2). Among class B receptors, five were characterized structurally by experimental methods (X-ray/cryo-EM): GCGR (as a first one, in 2013) [7], GLP1R in 2017 [8], CRFR1 in 2013 [9], CTR in 2017 [10], and CGRP and PTHR1 in 2018 [11,12]. These findings offered basis for understanding the class B bad allosteric modulation (GCGR, GLP1R, CRFR1) and relative conformational changes between two subdomains of these GPCRs induced by peptide agonists during activation (GCGR, GLP1R, CTR, PTH1R, CGRP) [1]. Except for similar to the class A mode of activation including among others the transmembrane helix 6 (TMH6) transformation, secretin-like receptors constructions undergo additional rearrangements of their extracellular domains (ectodomains) leading to the opening of the receptor interior (observe Number S1). The level of such conformational rearrangements of an ectodomain (an extracellular website, ECD) versus a transmembrane website (TMD) is definitely receptor-specific (observe Figure S2). For example, ECD of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) that interacts with receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) forming the CGRP receptor is almost perpendicular to the TMD axis during the activation. On the contrary, ECD of PTHR1, which requires only parathyroid hormone (PTH) for activation, is definitely parallel to the TMD axis (observe Number S2). Additionally, the conformation of the peptide agonist of CGRP differs from conformations of additional peptide agonists observed in the active constructions of PTHR1, GLP-1R, and GCGR (partly unfolded versus helical, respectively, observe Figure 1). However, conformations of TMD domains in Lactose solved-to-date experimental constructions of class B GPCRs in their fully activated states together with G protein subunits are related (observe Figure S2). More structural variations are Lactose observed in the relative positions of ECD and TMD domains, as was pointed out.